E1.0 ROZA – FASTING
E1.1 Obligation of Fasting
The rule for Fasting is similar to Namaz and is Farz-e-Ain and those who reject
to believe it as obligatory (Farz) is a Kafir and those who miss it without
genuine reason is a big sinner and will receive punishment in hell. Those children
who have the strength should be made to keep a fast and strong boys and girls
should be forced to keep a fast (a few slaps not with a stick) [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory.
E2.0 Description of fasting and age for beginning
According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast
for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to sunset and to refrain from eating,
drinking or having sexual intercourse.
For fasting, a woman has to be clean from menstruation or bleeding after childbirth
meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding
after childbirth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after
childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and she is clean from
it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza.
Fasting is not obligatory for children or for an insane person as long as they
remain insane for the whole month of Ramadan, and if they gain sanity any period
in the middle and it is still within the allocated time for intention, then
they must make the intention and fast from that day onwards and the Qaza is
necessary for the whole month, for example, if a person was insane from the
first of Ramadan and gained sanity on the twenty ninth day from the break of
dawn until midday then they will have to perform Qaza for whole month’s fasts
E3.0 Allocated time for the intention of Fasting
E3.1 The fasts of Ramadan, fixed time promised fasts, voluntary, Sunnat, Mustahhab,
and Makrooh fasts, the time for the Niyyat is from sunset upto midday and if
an intention is made from any time between this allocated times then the Fast
will count but it is better to make the intention from night-time. Except for
these six types of fasts all other Fasts (such as, Qaza for Ramadan, Qaza for
Nafl, non fixed time promised fasts, compensation Roza i.e. Kaffara, Fasting
for your sins and Roza for Tamattao) the time is from sunset upto the beginning
of the break of dawn not after this and the mentioning of the exact fast being
performed is necessary, for example, I am keeping a fast for the 28th missed
Ramadan Roza, or I am keeping a promised fast for such and such a thing being
E3.2 The intention for the Roza must be made before midday and if it is made
as soon as the sun reached midday then the fast will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
E4.0 The meaning of the intention
E4.1 Just as it was explained for other forms of worship, intention means
to fix a firm thought in your heart, it is not necessary to say the intention,
in the same way the intention for the fast is done the same way, however, it
is better to say it with the tongue. If the intention is made at night then
say “I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which
I will keep tomorrow” and if the fast is made before midday then say ”
I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which I will keep
today” [Johra, Bahar].
E4.2 If the intention is made in the day (before midday) then it is necessary
to make the intention that I have been fasting from the break of dawn and if
you make the intention that I will start fasting from now not from the break
of dawn, then the Roza will not count [Johra, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E5.0 Fasting on doubtful days
E5.1 The rule for fasting on the thirtieth of Shabaan when you are not sure
whether it is the thirtieth of Shabaan or the first of Ramadan, then to fast
with the sole intention of Nafl is allowed but to fast with the intention that
if it is the first of Ramadan then it is my first Ramadan Roza and if it is
not the first of Ramadan then it is a Nafl Roza then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
However, if the thirtieth falls on a day where you always fast on that day then
it is better to fast on that day, for example, if you fasted every Thursday
and the thirtieth of Shabaan was on a Thursday then it is better to fast that
day as a Nafl fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
E5.2 On a day where there is uncertainty then you should wait until midday and
if the news of seeing the moon arrives then fast that day and if no news arrive
then eat and drink [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
E5.3 To fast at the end of Shabaan for only one or two days is Makrooh and if
you fast for three or more days then it is not Makrooh.
E5.4 To fast on the day of Eid is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, also the same rule applies
on fasting on Bakr-e-Eid and also on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of
E5.5 To fast for Sunnat or Nafl Roza for only one day is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi,
for example, to fast on the tenth of Moharram is Sunnat but to fast only on
that day is Makrooh and if you fast on the ninth then there is no problem and
there is also no problem in fasting on the tenth and eleventh.
E5.6 It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a woman to fast a Nafl Roza without the permission
of her husband.
E6.0 To make a promise to fast
E6.1 If you made a promise to fast if your prayer was fulfilled, then that fast
become Wajib as soon as your prayer is fulfilled.
E6.2 If you was fasting a Nafl Roza and you broke it then to perform it’s Qaza
E7.0 THE SIGHTING OF THE MOON
The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has stated that start
fasting by seeing the moon and finish fasting ( celebrate Eid) by seeing the
moon, and if there is cloud then finish Shabaan by completing thirty days [Bukhari,
Muslim]. He has also reported that do not start fasting unless you see the moon
and do not stop fasting until you see the moon and if there is cloud and you
cannot see the moon then complete the thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim].
E8.0 Which months is it Wajib to see the moon ?
E8.1 t is Wajib-e-Kifaaya to see the moon for five months. These are Shabaan,
Ramadan, Shawwal, Zil Qad and Zil Hajj [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
E8.2 Attempt to see the moon on the twenty-ninth of Shabaan in the evening and
if you can see it then keep fast the next day and if you can’t then complete
thirty days of Shabaan and then start Ramadan [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Bahar].
E9.0 Proof of moon when skies are not clear
If the skies are not clear meaning there is cloud or smoke then only the
proof of Ramadan will be counted if one Muslim who is sane and is an adult and
is pious and a follower of Shariat, then his oath will be accepted, whether
the person is a male or female. Except for the beginning of Ramadan all other
month’s proof has to be given by either two men or one man and two women and
they all have to be pious and they have to say “I bear witness that I have
seen the moon personally” then the proof of the moon will be accepted [Hidaya,
Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
E10.0 Definition of a pious person
The definition of a pious person in this text is a person who refrains from
large sins and does not make a habit of committing small sins and is a person
who does not perform acts which are against the respect of society such as eating
whilst walking in the town.
E11.0 Definition of a person following Shariat
A person who by looking at them follow the Shariat but you are unaware of his
hidden activities [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E11.1 Whoever sees the moon and is a pious person then it is Wajib for them
to give oath that night.
E11.2 If the moon is seen in the village by a person and there is no Islamic
judge or ruler then the people of the village should be gathered and the oath
should be given and if the person giving oath is a pious person then it is necessary
for the village people to fast the next day.
E11.3 When the sky is not clear then the proof for Eid has to be given by a
Muslim, sane, adult, pious and a follower of the Shariat and there has to be
either two men or one man and two women and only then the oath will be accepted
[Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
E12.0 Proof of moon when skies are clear
If the skies are clear then until a lot of people do not give witness the oath
will not be accepted (whether it be for Ramadan, Eid or any other month). The
question remains as to how many people there should be, then this is upto the
Islamic judge and when he is satisfied with the amount of people then he will
declare it official. If the witnessing is given because the moon has been seen
outside the city or from a high place then only one pious person’s oath can
be accepted for Ramadan [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. However, we say that
because nowadays people are lazy and do not bother going to look for the moon
then except for Eid all the other month’s moon witnessing when the skies are
clear should be accepted if two Muslims have given oath.
E13.0 Giving an oath when seeing the moon
When giving oath it is necessary to say “I bear witness” and without
these words the oath cannot be accepted. However, due to bad skies and clouds
for the oath of the moon for Ramadan if only “I have seen with my eyes
the moon for this Ramadan today or I saw it last night’ is sufficient.
E13.1 If some people come and say ‘the moon has been seen in such a place or
give witness that there has been a sighting of the moon (but have not seen the
moon themselves) in such a place, or give witness that such and such a person
has seen the moon or say that the judge of such a town has ordered Ramadan or
Eid tomorrow then they are all incorrect methods and cannot be accepted [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
E13.2 If only the judge or Imam has seen the moon alone for Eid then he can’t
celebrate or give order to celebrate Eid as this is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
E13.3 If the moon was seen in a particular city and a group of people came from
that city and stated the news that Ramadan has begun on such a day and people
have started fasting from that day and the news is common then this is sufficient
for people in this town as proof [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E13.4 A person saw the moon alone for Ramadan or Eid but the judge did not accept
his statement or oath then it is Wajib for him to fast the next day and if he
doesn’t or has broken the fast the Qaza is necessary [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar,
E13.5 If the moon is seen during the day whether it be before or after midday
that moon is for the next day, meaning if the moon is seen on the thirtieth
day of Ramadan then it means the next day is the first of Shawwal and not the
current day and therefore the fast must be completed. In the same way if the
moon is seen during the day of the thirtieth of Shabaan, then Ramadan will begin
the next day and the current day is the thirtieth of Shawwal and therefore fasting
is not necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E13.6 If the moon is seen in one place then this moon isn’t just for that place
but for all the world, however, the rule applies to the other places only when
there has been a witness about the sighting of the moon, i.e. someone has given
oath or the judge that has ordered the seeing of the moon gives oath or a group
of people have took the news from where the moon was sighted and have stated
whether the people in their town have kept a fast or celebrated Eid.
E13.7 Proof cannot be accepted if the news are via a telegram or telephone or
radio because even if it is correct it is only news and not an oath and in the
same way news from people or printing the news in papers cannot be accepted
either as it is not proof of oath.
E13.8 If the moon is seen then to point towards it is Makrooh, even if it is
to show someone [Alamgiri, Siraajia, Bazazia, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E14.0 ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST
E14.1 By eating, drinking or having intercourse breaks the fast when you are
aware that you are fasting and if you forget that you were fasting and eat or
drank or had intercourse, then the fast will not break [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Qazi
E14.2 The fast will break if you smoked a cigarette or other form of smoke inhalation
or cigar etc.
E14.3 The fast also breaks by eating a paan or tobacco, even if you spit out
E14.4 If you put sugar, sweet, chewing gum or any item in your mouth which dissolves
and you swallow the taste then the fast will break.
E14.5 If there was something stuck in your teeth the same size or larger than
a chick pea and you swallowed it or it was smaller than a chick pea and you
took it out of your mouth and then swallowed it again then the fast will break.
E14.6 If your gums bled and the blood was more or equal to your saliva and went
down your throat or was less than the saliva and it went down your throat and
you could taste it then the fast will break. If the blood was less than the
saliva and you couldn’t feel the taste and it went down your throat, then the
Roza will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E14.7 If a syringe is used or medicine is put up your nostrils or oil or medicine
is put inside the ears then the fast will break, however, if water is put into
or goes into the ears then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.8 If you were cleaning your mouth out or was cleaning your nostrils and
water went down your throat by mistake or went up too far in your nostrils that
it went in your mouth canal even by mistake then the fast will break, if however,
you forgot that you were fasting then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.9 If you drank water or eat something whilst you were sleeping or your mouth
was open and water went down your throat or snow went down your throat then
the fast will break [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.10 To swallow someone else’s saliva or to take your own saliva in your hand
and then swallowing it will break the fast [Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.11 If you put a coloured thread in your mouth and your saliva became coloured
and then you swallowed the saliva, then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.12 If tears went into the mouth and it was only a drop or two then the fast
will not break and if it is more and the taste is felt in the whole mouth then
the fast will break, the same rule applies to sweat [Alamgiri, Bahar].
E14.13 If a man kissed a woman or touched her or hugged her or copulated with
her or embraced her and then ejaculated the fast would break and if the woman
touched a man and the man ejaculated then the fast would not break. If a man
touches a woman on her clothing and her clothing is so thick that the body warmth
cannot be felt then the fast will not break even if he ejaculates.
E14.14 If the private parts are cleaned with excessive force upto the extent
that the water reached upto the place where the suppository is kept then the
fast will break and one should refrain from using too much force as there is
a chance of illness [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. If a man put oil or water down
the hole of his penis then the fast will not break even if the liquid reaches
the bottom. If a woman put water or oil into her vagina then her fast will break
E14.15 If a woman put cotton or a cloth in her vagina and it does not stay completely
on the outside then the fast will break. If someone puts a dry finger up the
anus or a woman put a dry finger inside her vagina then the fast will not break
and if the finger is wet or something is on it then the fast will break when
the finger reaches the part where the point of the suppository goes [Alamgiri,
Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E14.16 If a mouthful vomit is done purposely and you are aware that you are
fasting then the fast will break and if small amounts are vomited then the fast
will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
E14.17 If vomit occurs on it’s own without control then whether it be a small
amount or large the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
E14.18 The rule of vomit applies when the vomit consists of food or liquid or
blood, if the vomit consists of just phlegm then the fast will not break regardless
of situation [Alamgiri].
E14.19 If in Ramadan a person without cause openly eats or drinks then the rule
for an Islamic judge is to execute them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
E15.0 Actions that break the fast but only Qaza is necessary
E15.1 If you were under the impression that the break of dawn had not yet occurred
and therefore you eat, drank or had sexual intercourse and then later on found
out that the break of dawn had already happened, then the fast will not count
and only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
E15.2 If you were forced into eating or drinking and someone threatened you
(either to kill you or cause you serious harm) if you did not break your fast
then even if you eat with your own hands, only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar
etc.]. Meaning only one fast has to be performed to replace the one broken [Bahar-e-
E15.3 If you had eaten or drank or had intercourse by mistake or you ejaculated
just by seeing something or had a wet dream and then you thought that the fast
had broken and therefore you deliberately eat or drank etc. then it is only
compulsory to perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E15.4 If you put ear drops in your ear or there was a wound on your stomach
or head and you put medication on it and it reached the stomach or brain or
you took on a drip (of glucose) or you sucked up medicine up your nose or you
eat a stone, soil, cotton, paper, grass or any item where people would not generally
eat and would think awful of, or stayed in Ramadan as if in Roza but did not
make an intention of fasting, or did not make an intention in the morning but
made an intention before midday and then eat after midday, or made an intention
of fasting but not for Ramadan or raindrops or snow went down the throat or
drank many drops of tears or sweat or had intercourse with a very small child
who was not capable of having intercourse, or had intercourse with a dead person
or had intercourse with an animal or had intercourse on a thigh or stomach or
kissed a woman on her lips or touched a woman and even if there was a piece
of cloth in between but the warmth of the body is felt and in these situations
you ejaculated or you masturbated or you ejaculated whilst performing foreplay
or except for the fast of Ramadan you broke another fast whether it be the Qaza
of Ramadan, or a woman was sleeping whilst she was fasting and someone had intercourse
with her whilst in her sleep or a woman was in her sense in the morning and
she made the intention of fasting and then she went insane and whilst in this
situation sexual intercourse was committed with her, or you were under the impression
that it is night and you had food or you were in doubt that it was night but
you had food but in fact the morning had broken, or you thought that the sun
had set and you eat but the sun had not set or two people gave witness that
the sun had set and two people gave witness that it was still day and this situation
you eat food then in ALL the above situations only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara
[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar, etc.].
E15.5 A traveller settled at a place, a woman on her period or bleeding after
childbirth became clean from it or an insane person came back to their senses,
or an ill person became healthy whose fast was broken whether someone made the
person break their fast or water or other liquid went down the throat by mistake
and the fast was broken because of this or you thought that it was night and
had some food but in fact morning had broken or you thought that it was sunset
but in fact daytime was still left then in all these situations where there
is still daytime left then you must stay as if you were in fasting as this is
Wajib and then perform Qaza for the fast and if a child became an adult or an
infidel became a Muslim then the Qaza for this day is not necessary but to remain
as if they were fasting for the rest of the day is also necessary for them [Durr-e-
E15.6 When a child reaches the age of ten and they have the strength to keep
a fast then they should be forced to keep a fast and if necessary they should
be hit and if the strength is seen and then they break the fast then they are
not to be given the order of Qaza, however, if the Namaz is broken then they
should be made to repeat it [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. If someone was having intercourse
before dawn and as soon as dawn occurred they separated then there is no harm
but if they continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
E15.7 If you were having intercourse by mistake and you separated as soon as
you remembered then there is no harm and if you continued then Qaza is necessary
not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
E15.8 A deceased person had some Qaza that he had to perform then the Wali (next
of kin) should give Fidya (money to replace the fast) to the poor but this
is only necessary when the deceased had made a will and left some property behind
and if this is not the case then it is not necessary for the Wali to give Fidya,
however, it is better if they do so [Bahar-e-Shariat].
E16.0 Actions that break the fast and Kaffara is also necessary
If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara
(compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is not possible then
keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible
then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day.
If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day’s fast is missed
then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone
had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to illness
etc. then they must start again the previous fifty nine are wasted. However,
if a woman starts her period in between then she must miss them and continue
the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started
will count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar,
When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions
that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become necessary.
E17.0 Conditions where Kaffara become necessary
1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping a fast
2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveller.
3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the fast
then Kaffara is not necessary).
4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the intention
for the fast was made in the day before midday and then broken then only Qaza
is necessary not Kaffara).
5. After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a fast
which you had no control over such as a woman started her period or such an
illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the Kaffara will not
be necessary. If however, after breaking the fast a person became a Ma’zoor
(had a problem) which was within their control such as a person injured themselves
and therefore became Ma’zoor or became a traveller then the Kaffara will not
be cancelled as these things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary
[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
E17.1 A person fasting purposely eat or drank some medicine or tablets or drank
water or had something to eat or drink for pleasure or had intercourse in the
front or back passage with a person capable of having intercourse (male or female)
and whether they had an orgasm or not or had intercourse with another person
fasting then in all these situations both Qaza and Kaffara is necessary.
E17.2 If such an act is done whereby the thought is that the fast will not break(except
eating, drinking or having intercourse), but you thought that the fast has broken
and then you eat or drank, for example, you extracted blood or put on Surma
(eye colour) or you had intercourse with an animal or touched a woman or kissed
a woman or laid next to a woman or performed foreplay but in all these cases
you did not reach orgasm i.e. did not ejaculate, or you put a dry finger up
the anus and then after this you purposely eat or drank then in all these cases
it is necessary to perform Qaza and Kaffara.
If however, an act is performed where the thought is that the fast does not
break and you thought that the fast had broken and a Mufti (Islamic jurist)
gave a Fatwa and the Mufti is respected within the local community and the Fatwa
is that the fast has broken and then you purposely eat or drank, or you had
wrongly misinterpreted a Hadith and thought that the fast had broken and then
you eat and drank, then the Kaffara is not necessary even though the Fatwa is
wrong or the Hadith heard is not proven [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E18.0 Acts that do not break the fast
E18.1 If you eat, drink or have sexual intercourse by mistake then the fast
does not break.
E18.2 If a fly, smoke or dust goes down the throat then the fast does not break,
however, if you purposely inhaled smoke then the fast will break if you know
that you are fasting. For example, incense, loban was lighted and was brought
near the mouth and the smoke was sucked up the nose, then the fast will break.
E18.3 If you apply oil or lotion or surma on the body or eyes then the fast
will not break and if the taste of the oil or surma is felt in the throat or
if the saliva is coloured due to the surma then the fast will still not break
[Radd- ul-Mohtar, Johra, Bahar].
E18.4 If a fly goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if it is
deliberately swallowed then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar]. If whilst
talking the lips got wet or you cleared your throat and then drank the saliva,
then the fast will not break but you should refrain from doing this [Alamgiri,
Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul- Mohtar, Bahar]
E18.5 If your gums bled and the blood reached the throat but did not go down
it, then the fast will not break [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
E18.6 If you were eating by mistake and as soon as you remembered you spat out
the food then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the
fast will break [Alamgiri].
E18.7 You started eating (sehri) before the break of dawn and whilst you were
eating you saw that the morning had broken and you spat out the food in your
mouth then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast
will break [Alamgiri].
E18.8 If you chewed a linseed or something of equivalent size and it went down
the throat with your saliva then the fast will not break, if however, you felt
the taste of it then the fast will break [Fatahul Qadir].
E18.9 If medicine is grounded or flour is sieved and you felt the taste in your
throat then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir etc.].
E18.10 If water went inside the ears then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
E18.11 If you talked badly about someone behind their back then the fast will
not break, however to backbite is a very large sin. It is stated in the Quran
that to backbite is the same as eating the flesh of one’s dead brother, it is
quoted in the Hadith that backbiting is worse than adultery and by backbiting
the light (Noor) of fasting will disappear [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
E18.12 If you kissed but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break, and
in the same way you looked at a woman or her private parts but did not touch
her and ejaculated or reached orgasm even though you looked many times or you
thought about intercourse for a long time or kept on thinking about sexual activities
and then ejaculated, then in all these situations the fast will not break [Johra,
E18.13 If you had a wet dream (nocturnal emission) then the fast will not break.
E18.14 If you remained in a state where bathing is obligatory (Junub) until
the morning, in fact remained like that all day then the fast will not break,
however to remain like that so that you miss a Namaz is Haram and it is quoted
in the Hadith that where there is a Junub person in a house the angels of mercy
do not enter the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E18.15 If you had intercourse in any other hole except for the two passages
below then unless you ejaculate the fast will not break. Also, if you masturbated
but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break although this act is strictly
Haram and it is stated in the Hadith that those who do this are not with me
( Prophet) [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Bahar].
E19.0 Acts that make the fast Makrooh
E19.1 To lie, backbite, tell-tale, to swear, talk shamelessly, to cause someone
harm are all Haram acts anyway, but to do these acts whilst fasting are even
more Haram and because of this the fast become Makrooh.
E19.2 For a fasting person to taste or chew something without reason then the
fast becomes Makrooh. The acceptable reason is when a husband or master is very
short tempered and due to there being less salt will cause him disappointment
then to taste (but not swallow) will not make the fast Makrooh. Another reason
is when there is a small child or elderly or disabled person who cannot chew
a chappati or bread and there is no other person available who is not fasting
then the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
E20.0 Definition of tasting
Tasting something is not what is known as today where to taste something a few
bites are taken or a few sips are taken, never mind tasting this will break
the fast and if the conditions of Kaffara apply then Kaffara will become necessary.
Tasting is to put something on the tongue and the taste is identified and then
the food is spat out and none of it goes down the throat then the fast will
not break and if something goes down the throat then the fast will break.